Renaissance Königreiche

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In some ways, Renaissance humanism was not a philosophy but a method of learning. In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which focused on resolving contradictions between authors, Renaissance humanists would study ancient texts in the original and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence.

Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', the study of five humanities: poetry , grammar , history , moral philosophy and rhetoric.

Although historians have sometimes struggled to define humanism precisely, most have settled on "a middle of the road definition Humanist scholars shaped the intellectual landscape throughout the early modern period.

Pico della Mirandola wrote the "manifesto" of the Renaissance, the Oration on the Dignity of Man , a vibrant defence of thinking. Matteo Palmieri — , another humanist, is most known for his work Della vita civile "On Civic Life"; printed , which advocated civic humanism , and for his influence in refining the Tuscan vernacular to the same level as Latin.

Palmieri drew on Roman philosophers and theorists, especially Cicero , who, like Palmieri, lived an active public life as a citizen and official, as well as a theorist and philosopher and also Quintilian.

Composed as a series of dialogues set in a country house in the Mugello countryside outside Florence during the plague of , Palmieri expounds on the qualities of the ideal citizen.

The dialogues include ideas about how children develop mentally and physically, how citizens can conduct themselves morally, how citizens and states can ensure probity in public life, and an important debate on the difference between that which is pragmatically useful and that which is honest.

The humanists believed that it is important to transcend to the afterlife with a perfect mind and body, which could be attained with education.

The purpose of humanism was to create a universal man whose person combined intellectual and physical excellence and who was capable of functioning honorably in virtually any situation.

Education during the Renaissance was mainly composed of ancient literature and history as it was thought that the classics provided moral instruction and an intensive understanding of human behavior.

A unique characteristic of some Renaissance libraries is that they were open to the public. These libraries were places where ideas were exchanged and where scholarship and reading were considered both pleasurable and beneficial to the mind and soul.

As freethinking was a hallmark of the age, many libraries contained a wide range of writers. Classical texts could be found alongside humanist writings.

These informal associations of intellectuals profoundly influenced Renaissance culture. Some of the richest "bibliophiles" built libraries as temples to books and knowledge.

A number of libraries appeared as manifestations of immense wealth joined with a love of books. In some cases, cultivated library builders were also committed to offering others the opportunity to use their collections.

Prominent aristocrats and princes of the Church created great libraries for the use of their courts, called "court libraries", and were housed in lavishly designed monumental buildings decorated with ornate woodwork, and the walls adorned with frescoes Murray, Stuart A.

Renaissance art marks a cultural rebirth at the close of the Middle Ages and rise of the Modern world. One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective.

Giotto di Bondone — is credited with first treating a painting as a window into space, but it was not until the demonstrations of architect Filippo Brunelleschi — and the subsequent writings of Leon Battista Alberti — that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique.

The development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts. Underlying these changes in artistic method was a renewed desire to depict the beauty of nature and to unravel the axioms of aesthetics , with the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael representing artistic pinnacles that were much imitated by other artists.

In the Netherlands , a particularly vibrant artistic culture developed. The work of Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck was particularly influential on the development of painting in Italy, both technically with the introduction of oil paint and canvas, and stylistically in terms of naturalism in representation.

Later, the work of Pieter Brueghel the Elder would inspire artists to depict themes of everyday life.

In architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi was foremost in studying the remains of ancient classical buildings. With rediscovered knowledge from the 1st-century writer Vitruvius and the flourishing discipline of mathematics, Brunelleschi formulated the Renaissance style that emulated and improved on classical forms.

His major feat of engineering was building the dome of the Florence Cathedral. Andrew in Mantua , built by Alberti. The outstanding architectural work of the High Renaissance was the rebuilding of St.

Peter's Basilica , combining the skills of Bramante , Michelangelo , Raphael , Sangallo and Maderno. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters , and entablatures as an integrated system.

The Roman orders types of columns are used: Tuscan and Composite. These can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters.

One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy — by Brunelleschi.

There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental.

Renaissance vaults do not have ribs; they are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault, which is frequently rectangular.

Renaissance artists were not pagans, although they admired antiquity and kept some ideas and symbols of the medieval past.

Nicola Pisano c. His Annunciation , from the Baptistry at Pisa , demonstrates that classical models influenced Italian art before the Renaissance took root as a literary movement [61].

Applied innovation extended to commerce. At the end of the 15th century Luca Pacioli published the first work on bookkeeping , making him the founder of accounting.

The rediscovery of ancient texts and the invention of the printing press democratized learning and allowed a faster propagation of more widely distributed ideas.

In the first period of the Italian Renaissance , humanists favoured the study of humanities over natural philosophy or applied mathematics , and their reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe.

Writing around , Nicholas Cusanus anticipated the heliocentric worldview of Copernicus , but in a philosophical fashion. Science and art were intermingled in the early Renaissance, with polymath artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature.

Da Vinci set up controlled experiments in water flow, medical dissection, and systematic study of movement and aerodynamics, and he devised principles of research method that led Fritjof Capra to classify him as the "father of modern science".

A suitable environment had developed to question scientific doctrine. The discovery in of the New World by Christopher Columbus challenged the classical worldview.

The works of Ptolemy in geography and Galen in medicine were found to not always match everyday observations. As the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation clashed, the Northern Renaissance showed a decisive shift in focus from Aristotelean natural philosophy to chemistry and the biological sciences botany, anatomy, and medicine.

Some view this as a " scientific revolution ", heralding the beginning of the modern age, [67] others as an acceleration of a continuous process stretching from the ancient world to the present day.

De humani corporis fabrica On the Workings of the Human Body by Andreas Vesalius , gave a new confidence to the role of dissection , observation, and the mechanistic view of anatomy.

Another important development was in the process for discovery, the scientific method , [70] focusing on empirical evidence and the importance of mathematics , while discarding Aristotelian science.

Early and influential proponents of these ideas included Copernicus, Galileo, and Francis Bacon. During the Renaissance, extending from to , [74] every continent was visited and mostly mapped by Europeans, except the south polar continent now known as Antarctica.

This development is depicted in the large world map Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula made by the Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in to commemorate the Peace of Westphalia.

In , Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain seeking a direct route to India of the Delhi Sultanate. He accidentally stumbled upon the Americas, but believed he had reached the East Indies.

In , the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon sailed from the East Indies in the VOC ship Duyfken and landed in Australia. More than thirty Dutch expeditions followed, mapping sections of the north, west and south coasts.

In —, Abel Tasman circumnavigated the continent, proving that it was not joined to the imagined south polar continent. By , Dutch cartographers had mapped most of the coastline of the continent, which they named New Holland , except the east coast which was charted in by Captain Cook.

The long-imagined south polar continent was eventually sighted in Throughout the Renaissance it had been known as Terra Australis , or 'Australia' for short.

However, after that name was transferred to New Holland in the nineteenth century, the new name of 'Antarctica' was bestowed on the south polar continent.

From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school. The development of printing made distribution of music possible on a wide scale.

Demand for music as entertainment and as an activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class.

Dissemination of chansons , motets , and masses throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style that culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as Palestrina , Lassus , Victoria and William Byrd.

The new ideals of humanism, although more secular in some aspects, developed against a Christian backdrop, especially in the Northern Renaissance.

Much, if not most, of the new art was commissioned by or in dedication to the Church. The Renaissance began in times of religious turmoil. The late Middle Ages was a period of political intrigue surrounding the Papacy , culminating in the Western Schism , in which three men simultaneously claimed to be true Bishop of Rome.

Although the papacy eventually emerged supreme in ecclesiastical matters by the Fifth Council of the Lateran , it was dogged by continued accusations of corruption, most famously in the person of Pope Alexander VI , who was accused variously of simony , nepotism and fathering four children most of whom were married off, presumably for the consolidation of power while a cardinal.

Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament.

Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct role in sparking the Reformation, as well as in many other contemporaneous religious debates and conflicts.

Pope Paul III came to the papal throne — after the sack of Rome in , with uncertainties prevalent in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation.

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HISTORY Podcasts. History at Home. Shows This Day In History Schedule Topics Stories. From Darkness to Light: The Renaissance Begins During the Middle Ages , a period that took place between the fall of ancient Rome in A.

Medici Family The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy, a place with a rich cultural history where wealthy citizens could afford to support budding artists.

Renaissance Art, Architecture and Science Art, architecture and science were closely linked during the Renaissance.

Some of the most famous artistic works that were produced during the Renaissance include: The Mona Lisa Da Vinci The Last Supper Da Vinci Statue of David Michelangelo The Birth of Venus Botticelli The Creation of Adam Michelangelo Renaissance Exploration While many artists and thinkers used their talents to express new ideas, some Europeans took to the seas to learn more about the world around them.

READ MORE: The Age of Exploration Renaissance Religion Humanism encouraged Europeans to question the role of the Roman Catholic church during the Renaissance.

End of the Renaissance Scholars believe the demise of the Renaissance was the result of several compounding factors. Sources The Renaissance, History World International.

Humanism Triggers The Renaissance. UFO Sightings: Renaissance Artists. Harlem Renaissance. SIGN UP. RELATED CONTENT.

Finally, humanism looked forward to a rebirth of a lost human spirit and wisdom. In the course of striving to recover it, however, the humanists assisted in the consolidation of a new spiritual and intellectual outlook and in the development of a new body of knowledge.

The effect of humanism was to help men break free from the mental strictures imposed by religious orthodoxy, to inspire free inquiry and criticism , and to inspire a new confidence in the possibilities of human thought and creations.

From Italy the new humanist spirit and the Renaissance it engendered spread north to all parts of Europe, aided by the invention of printing, which allowed literacy and the availability of Classical texts to grow explosively.

Foremost among northern humanists was Desiderius Erasmus , whose Praise of Folly epitomized the moral essence of humanism in its insistence on heartfelt goodness as opposed to formalistic piety.

The intellectual stimulation provided by humanists helped spark the Reformation , from which, however, many humanists, including Erasmus, recoiled. It was in art that the spirit of the Renaissance achieved its sharpest formulation.

In the hands of men such as Leonardo da Vinci it was even a science , a means for exploring nature and a record of discoveries.

Art was to be based on the observation of the visible world and practiced according to mathematical principles of balance, harmony, and perspective , which were developed at this time.

In the works of painters such as Masaccio , the brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti , Fra Angelico , Sandro Botticelli , Perugino , Piero della Francesca , Raphael , and Titian ; sculptors such as Giovanni Pisano , Donatello , Andrea del Verrocchio , Lorenzo Ghiberti , and Michelangelo ; and architects such as Leon Battista Alberti , Filippo Brunelleschi , Andrea Palladio , Michelozzo , and Filarete , the dignity of man found expression in the arts.

Francis of Assisi had rejected the formal Scholasticism of the prevailing Christian theology and gone out among the poor praising the beauties and spiritual value of nature.

His example inspired Italian artists and poets to take pleasure in the world around them. The great poet Dante lived at about the same time as Giotto, and his poetry shows a similar concern with inward experience and the subtle shades and variations of human nature.

Although his Divine Comedy belongs to the Middle Ages in its plan and ideas, its subjective spirit and power of expression look forward to the Renaissance.

Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio also belong to this proto-renaissance period, both through their extensive studies of Latin literature and through their writings in the vernacular.

Unfortunately, the terrible plague of and subsequent civil wars submerged both the revival of humanistic studies and the growing interest in individualism and naturalism revealed in the works of Giotto and Dante.

The spirit of the Renaissance did not surface again until the 15th century. The thriving universe and its realistic economic system entirely rely on the actions of the players.

In Renaissance Kingdoms, you can become a baker to supply bread to your village, or a bandit to rob imprudent travellers, a soldier to join an army, a general to lead an army, a bishop or a cardinal to spread your faith, an elected count or even a king The possibilities are endless and nothing stops you from having several destinies in one life!

You can also customize the appearance of your home, both outside and inside and, if you are elected mayor, you can customize the appearance of your village!

In Renaissance Kingdoms, each character has a powerful impact on the world and the other players. For instance, in order to raise an army, you must convince other players to get weapons and join you, whether you pay them or persuade them to do it.

In order to be elected to a major position, you will have to convince the electors that they should choose you.

Likewise, the economic system of the game encourages player cooperation as, from the loaf of bread to the warship, every item of the game is made by the players.

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